MA Nemanja Mitrović
Institute for Contemporary History
Belgrade, Republic of Serbia
INTERNATIONAL PROBLEMS VIEWED THROUGH TALKS BETWEEN NICOLAE CEAUȘESCU AND JOSIP BROZ TITO IN 1968
Vol. XXXVIII, 1/2020, pp. 129–146
The importance of a scholarly study of Yugoslav-Romanian relations during 1968 comes from the fact that this cooperation had outgrown its bilateral context. Tighter contact between two countries was reflected in frequent and cordial visits of the highest-ranking officials. Among those contacts, the most important were meetings of the two heads of state, Nicolae Ceaușescu and Josip Broz Tito. In 1968 alone they met three times. The first meeting was in early 1968, the second was during the Romanian delegation’s official visit from May 27 to June 1, and the third one happened just days after the Soviet intervention in Czechoslovakia.
Mutual interests such as opposition to superpower hegemony, the defense of sovereignty and peaceful coexistence, independent foreign policy, and cooperation on equal terms, were especially stressed during the talks between Josip Broz Tito and Nicolae Ceaușescu. Hence these three visits were of special importance for understanding the relations between Yugoslavia and Romania in 1968. The main topics of the talks during the visits were: mutual consulting of the communist parties, relations with the USSR, international crises such as the one is the Middle East, but some crucial subjects also emerged during that eventful year, i.e. the non-proliferation deal and the events in Czechoslovakia.
As one of the greatest emergencies of the Cold War, the Czechoslovakia crisis triggered a defense from potential foreign invasion and dominated Yugoslav-Romanian relations. The relations between Romania and Yugoslavia were on the rise for a number of years. That influenced Belgrade to support more independent policy of Bucharest. However, the crisis in Czechoslovakia also put a limit to this cooperation. During the talks in Vršac Tito clearly said that Yugoslavia is not ready for a military alliance which would provoke the Soviet Union. The talks in Vršac were the opportunity to define the limits of Yugoslav-Romanian cooperation.
KEYWORDS: Yugoslavia, Romania, Josip Broz Tito, Nicolae Ceausescu, Prague Spring, 1968, Cold War
- Bischof Günter, Stefan Karner, and Peter Ruggenthaler. The Prague Spring and the Warsaw Pact Invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968. Plymouth: Lexington Books, 2010.
- Bogetić, Dragan. „Jugoslovensko-sovjetski odnosi u svetlu vojne intervencije u Čehoslovačkoj“. U: 1968 – četrdeset godina posle. Urednica Radmila Radić, 129–161. Beograd: Institut za noviju istoriju, 2008.
- Bogetić, Dragan. Jugoslovensko-američki odnosi 1961–1971. Beograd: Institut za savremenu istoriju, 2012.
- Bondžić, Dragomir. Između ambicija i iluzija. Nuklearna politika Jugoslavije 1945–1990. Beograd: Institut za savremenu istoriju, 2016.
- Crowder, B. Ashby. Legacies of 1968: Autonomy and Represion in Ceausescu’s Romania 1965–1989. Ohaio, 2007.
- Dimić, „Godina 1968 – ishodište nove jugoslovenske politike“. U: 1968 – četrdeset godina posle. Urednica Radmila Radić, 339–375. Beograd: Institut za noviju istoriju, 2008.
- Dimić, Jugoslavija i Hladni rat. Beograd: Arhipelag, 2014.
- Dragomir, Elena. „The perceived threat of hegemonismin Romania during the second de´tente“. Cold War History, vol. 12, no. 1, (February 2012), 111–134.
- Gaddis, John Lewis. „On Moral Equivalency and Cold War History”. Ethnics and International Affairs, vol. 10. (1996), 131–148.
- Gedis, L. Džon. Hladni rat. Beograd: Clio, 2003.
- Judt, Tony. Postwar: A History of Europe since 1945. New York: Penguin Press, 2005.
- Klasić, Hrvoje. Jugoslavija i svijet 1968. Zagreb: Ljevak, 2012.
- Laker, Istorija Evrope 1945–1992. Beograd: Clio, 1999.
- McDermott Kevin, and Matthew Stibbe. Eastern Europe in 1968: Responses to the Prague Spring and Warsaw Pact Invasion. Cham: Palgrave MacMillan, 2018.
- Petrović, Vladimir. Titova lična diplomatija. Beograd: Institut za savremenu istoriju, 2010.
- Retegan, Mihai. In the Shadow of the Prague Spring: Romanian Foreign Policy and the Crisis in Czechoslovakia, 1968. Buchurest: Center for Romanian Studies, 2000.
- Schmid, Sonja. „Nuclear Colonization?: Soviet Technopolitics in the Second World“. In: Entangled Geographies: Empire and Techologies in the Global Cold War. Editor Gabrielle Hecht, 125–155. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2011.
- Tismaneanu, Vladimir. Promises of 1968: Crisis, illusion and Utopia. Budapest: Central European University Press, 2011.
- Tripković, Đoko. „Međunarodni položaj Jugoslavije i vojna intervencija u Čehoslovačkoj“. Istorija 20. veka, XXVI, br. 1, (2008), 115–130.
- Tripković, Đoko. Jugoslavija – SSSR 1956–1971. Beograd: Institut za savremenu istoriju, 2012.
- Veiga, Francisko. „Sličnosti u političkom i društvenom životu Jugoslavije i Rumunije“. U: Balkan posle Drugog svetskog rata. Urednici Petar Kačavenda i Dragan Bogetić, 245–253. Beograd: Institut za savremenu istoriju, 1996.
- Vestad, Od Arne. Globalni Hladni rat. Beograd: Arhipelag, 2008.